En la industria de la investigación de mercados, la incidencia se refiere a la proporción de personas de una población que cumplen los requisitos para participar en un estudio específico. Por ejemplo, si un estudio busca personas que hayan comprado un producto concreto en los últimos seis meses, la incidencia sería el porcentaje de personas de la población total que cumplen este criterio.
Si la incidencia es demasiado baja, puede resultar difícil encontrar suficientes participantes para realizar un estudio válido y relevante, lo que aumenta los costos y el tiempo de campo para completar el estudio. Identificar criterios de selección lo suficientemente específicos como para obtener resultados fiables y, al mismo tiempo, lo suficientemente amplios como para producir una muestra representativa es fundamental.
Pero, ¿qué ocurre cuando un proyecto experimenta incidencias inexplicablemente bajas a pesar de considerar criterios de selección amplios? Cuando el reclutamiento que debería haber sido rápido y fácil no lo es.
La respuesta a por qué la gente no participa en la encuesta puede estar en cómo está diseñada. Examine qué preguntas de la encuesta están siendo abandonadas. ¿Qué tendencias observa? Los cuestionarios deben adaptarse a las necesidades de una población determinada para que tengan eco. Los investigadores pueden hacerlo a través de la tropicalización, en la que el lenguaje y el estilo de las preguntas se adaptan a un contexto cultural específico, modificando ciertos términos y expresiones para hacerlos más comprensibles y relacionables con hablantes locales, culturas o generaciones específicas.
La tropicalización se puede utilizar para adaptar las preguntas de la encuesta en cuatro áreas para lograr resultados máximos:
Considerar la tropicalización del lenguaje en la investigación de mercado es importante, especialmente al diseñar encuestas. Simplemente traducir preguntas de un idioma a otro es insuficiente. La redacción de las preguntas y la presentación de las opciones de respuesta de forma diferente influyen en la eficacia general de la encuesta. El contexto cultural y las características del público objetivo siempre deben considerarse al diseñar una encuesta para que sea relevante para la audiencia prevista.
El abandono de la encuesta también puede producirse por otros motivos, como un problema de configuración en la programación de la encuesta o simplemente porque los encuestados se aburren. Es fundamental que los investigadores analicen en qué parte del cuestionario los encuestados abandonan o son filtrados para comprender mejor qué se necesita para mejorar las tasas de participación.
La tropicalización del lenguaje también puede incluir la adaptación de un cuestionario, encuesta o entrevista a la edad de los encuestados, especialmente si en un proyecto de investigación participan personas de diferentes edades.
Cuando se realiza en relación con las edades de los encuestados, la tropicalización puede implicar el ajuste del nivel lingüístico, la presentación y la formulación de las preguntas, la terminología y el tono para garantizar que las preguntas sean comprensibles e interesantes para cada grupo de edad.
Por ejemplo, si se le pregunta a jóvenes menores de 18 años sobre sus hábitos de consumo, se podría simplificar la redacción y utilizar ejemplos más concretos y actuales. Para los adultos de más de 30 años, podría utilizar un lenguaje más formal y una presentación más compleja pero fácil de entender.
Al adaptar el lenguaje en función de la edad de los encuestados, los datos recopilados serán más precisos, ya que las respuestas pueden variar según su comprensión de las preguntas. Además, la tropicalización del lenguaje también puede contribuir a la satisfacción de los encuestados, ya que las preguntas fáciles de entender hacen que los encuestados se sientan más cómodos al responderlas.
Aunque el español se habla ampliamente en América Latina, no todos usan las mismas palabras. Por ello, tropicalizar un cuestionario adaptando términos y expresiones a las variantes regionales del español hablado en cada país, facilita la comprensión.
Al aplicar un cuestionario de investigación en otro país, hay que tener cuidado. Lo que tiene sentido para unos puede confundir a otros. Por ejemplo, una tienda de conveniencia en algunos países latinoamericanos puede llamarse "tienda de abarrotes" o "minimercado", según la región. En el caso de la comida, la palabra "taco" en México y Nicaragua se refiere a la comida envuelta en una tortilla, mientras que en Colombia puede referirse a una mentira o exageración. En Chile, puede referirse a un atasco de tráfico. Del mismo modo, la palabra "torta" puede referirse a un alimento salado en México, mientras que en otros países como Argentina, es un postre dulce.
La tropicalización de las encuestas de investigación de mercado en América Latina puede prevenir problemas de comprensión y aumentar los índices de participación.
Si pensaban que tropicalizar cada encuesta según el país objetivo en América Latina era complicado, realizar una encuesta para hispanos en Estados Unidos es aún más desafiante. Esto se debe a que muchas encuestas se centran en los hispanos en general, incluyendo a personas de cualquier país de América Latina, con diferentes niveles de aculturación y diversos entornos socioeconómicos.
Pero el equipo multicultural experimentado de ThinkNow es experto en estas áreas y puede asesorarle para mejorar la incidencia en LATAM y EE. UU.
Póngase en contacto con nosotros. Podemos ayudarle.
In the market research industry, incidence refers to the proportion of people in a population who meet the requirements to participate in a specific study. For example, if a study seeks people who have purchased a particular product in the last six months, incidence would be the percentage of people in the total population who meet this criterion.
If the incidence is too low, finding enough participants to conduct a valid and relevant study may be difficult, increasing costs and field time to complete the study. Identifying selection criteria specific enough to obtain reliable results yet broad enough to produce a representative sample is critical.
But what happens when a project experiences inexplicably low incidences despite considering broad selection criteria? When recruitment that should have been quick and easy is not.
The answer to why people are not participating in the survey may lie with how your survey is designed. Examine which survey questions are being abandoned. What trends do you see? Questionnaires must be customized to the needs of a given population if they are to resonate. Researchers can do that through audience customization, in which the language and questioning style is adapted to a specific cultural context, modifying certain terms and expressions to make them more understandable and relatable to local speakers, cultures, or specific generations.
Audience customization can be used to adapt survey questions in four areas to achieve maximum results:
Considering language audience customization in market research is important, especially when designing surveys. Simply translating questions from one language to another is insufficient. The wording of questions and presenting response options differently matters to the overall effectiveness of the survey. Cultural context and characteristics of the target audience should always be considered when designing a survey so it’s relative to the intended audience.
Survey abandonment may also occur for other reasons, such as a configuration problem in the programming of the survey or simply because the respondents are bored. It is critical that researchers analyze where in the questionnaire respondents are either dropping out or being filtered out to better understand what’s needed to improve participation rates.
Language audience customization can also include adapting a questionnaire, survey, or interview for the age of the respondents, especially if a research project involves people of different ages.
When done in relation to the ages of the respondents, audience customization may involve adjusting the language level, presentation and question wording, terminology, and tone to ensure the questions are understandable and interesting for each age group.
For instance, if you're asking young people under 18 about their consumption habits, you could simplify the wording and use more specific and contemporary examples. For adults over 30, you might use more formal language and a more complex but easy-to-understand presentation.
When adapting language based on the respondents' ages, the collected data will be more accurate, as responses may vary according to their understanding of the questions. Furthermore, language audience customization may also contribute to respondent satisfaction, as easy-to-understand questions make respondents more comfortable answering them.
Even though Spanish is widely spoken in Latin America, not everyone uses the same words. Therefore, audience customizing a questionnaire by adapting terms and expressions to the regional variants of Spanish spoken in each country aids comprehension.
When applying a research questionnaire in another country, be cautious. What makes sense to some might confuse others. For example, a convenience store in some Latin American countries can be called "tienda de abarrotes" or "minimercado," depending on the region. In the case of food, the word "taco" in Mexico and Nicaragua refers to food wrapped in a tortilla, while in Colombia, it can refer to a lie or exaggeration. In Chile, it can refer to a traffic jam. Similarly, the word "torta" can refer to a salty food in Mexico, while in other countries like Argentina, it is a sweet dessert.
Audience customizing market research surveys in Latin America can prevent comprehension problems and increase participation rates.
If you thought that audience customizing each survey according to the target country in Latin America was complicated, conducting a survey for Hispanics in the United States is even more challenging. This is because many surveys focus on Hispanics in general, including people from any country in Latin America, with different levels of acculturation and diverse socioeconomic environments.
But ThinkNow's experienced multicultural team of experts is skilled in these areas and can advise you on improving incidence in LATAM and the U.S.
Get in touch with us. We can help.
Non-profit associations in Latin America produce valuable data that promotes and regulates good practices in opinion and market research. As part of their activities, they create questionnaires that help determine the socioeconomic levels of the population, which companies use to develop research studies tailored to specific profiles. Below is a list of some of the organizations responsible for these classifications, arranged by country:
Undoubtedly, the work of these organizations generates a practical vision of the socioeconomic diversity of each country, although their methodology continues to present some challenges, as listed below:
Each country has different methodologies, as well as different scopes. Some questionnaires, such as those in Mexico, attempt to measure socioeconomic level by well-being. Still, in other countries, it is determined by the postal code and the collection of domiciled public services. While these disparities do not allow us to compare Latin American countries exactly, they approximate the population's reality.
Different from the United States, Latin America never asks directly about income levels. As fraud and organized crime continue to grow, inquiries about income levels have become sensitive for Latin Americans, often generating fear and insecurity when shared openly. Thus, the questions do not directly address an individual's income but rather the number of goods and services they have. To determine the socioeconomic levels of our panelists, ThinkNow uses country-specific measurement questionnaires.
AMAI's 2020 study on socioeconomic levels suggests that the frequency of updating socioeconomic levels varies by country. Argentina, Colombia, and Brazil update their data annually, and Mexico and Chile update every two years, whereas Uruguay, Peru and Guatemala update every three years. It can be highly challenging for a panel company to maintain an updated database of millions of registered users since the socioeconomic level of panelists varies. To obtain current data, ThinkNow recommends posting socioeconomic-level questions before starting each survey.
The majority of the Latin American population comes from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Market researchers and online panel companies face a considerable challenge in finding consumers who are connected to the Internet and have time to respond to customer surveys. The most common solution involves combining online and face-to-face sampling methodologies.
Ideally, when conducting a consumer study in Latin America, the questionnaire that measures the socioeconomic level of the country should be included in the data collection. We recommend, however, reviewing the methodology employed by each country to determine if the points covered in the questionnaire are relevant to your market research.
ThinkNow offers expert survey programming, including questionnaires for the LATAM region. Contact us today for a quote.
This October, ThinkNow sponsored IDEAS AMAI 2022, one of the largest conferences for the insights industry, particularly for LATAM market research. The Mexican Association of Market Intelligence and Opinion Agencies (AMAI) works to maintain data quality and transparency in market research in Mexico. The event marked AMAI's 30th anniversary, and the mood was festive.
The format of this year's event was different from previous years as it focused on small group sessions led by industry insiders who shared insights from their careers. The objective was not to sell or argue about the best research method but to listen to and learn from speakers and colleagues.
Here are a few takeaways from some of the sessions.
There was a sense of camaraderie and collaboration at AMAI 2022. Researchers gathered to share experiences and learn from some of the best in the field. Access to such diverse perspectives helps broaden our vision of the industry, the companies we represent, and the clients we serve.
If you’re old enough, when you think about commodities, you may think back to the 1983 film Trading Places in which Randolph Duke and his brother Mortimer tried to explain commodities to Billy Ray Valentine. Coffee, wheat, bacon, and frozen orange juice were cited as examples. Fast forward nearly 40 years and commodities are still all those things, but commoditizing products now goes beyond plants and animals. Commoditization can also occur in the digital economy, and we see that play out in the sample industry.
When products have been commoditized, buyers assume the quality of the products is just about equal, so they look to pay a lower price for that good or service. In the case of online sample, all sample providers supply survey respondents, so the choice of which vendor to go which typically comes down to price. But what is often not considered is the respondents’ shelf life and future value, or the source of these respondents.
Most commodities expire. Once opened, a bag of coffee beans may last you six months. Frozen orange juice has an indefinite shelf life, but once it’s thawed, it’s best consumed within two hours. Online sample is not much different. With sample, a person volunteers to respond to a question via an online survey. You may not know that panelists typically have a life span of one or two surveys, and then they are gone forever. Click To Tweet The average respondent only responds to a couple of surveys in their lifetime. Going back to our commodities example, the only way to get more orange juice is to plant more orange groves. Similarly, producing more panelists is the only way to get more responses. To produce more panelists, the online panel must have well-developed panel technology from the point of recruitment to delivery. However, online sample platforms are not SaaS software but more like digital farms. Let me explain.
Online sample is a form of ResTech, a marriage of research and technology. Panels cannot, however, become software as a service or SaaS because they require the digital farming of sample. To put it another way, quality sample must be cultivated. Click To Tweet You could certainly build a service that scrapes the internet for names and loads them up in a database for people with subscriptions to access. However, doing so almost always results in poor client results and violates consumer privacy. Clients pay a CPI (cost per impression) per completed survey. When data integrity is compromised, the response rate hovers near zero.
A survey programming platform, however, is an example of a SaaS technology because it licenses the software needed to build out the survey. Still, it does not provide or require a platform to cultivate or curate panelists.
When you consider panel recruitment, data quality, and data delivery, online sample might not be as commoditized as you think. Sample providers are not all created equal, and the one you choose could impact your survey response rate.
More than 10 years ago, the pioneers of online panels in Latin America began to break new ground in the region by offering online sample methodology. Slowly, market research companies began to see the advantages. Once they finally adopted the methodology, they faced a new challenge in convincing their clients that the result of online sample would be similar, if not better.
For years, the market research industry was devoted to face-to-face research methodologies like pen and paper surveys, which were very time-consuming, expensive, and dangerous in some Latin American countries where, to this day, recruiters are kidnapped or extorted by organized crime. To achieve better results more efficiently, mitigate the risk to recruiters, and be more competitive, research agencies sought ways to educate their clients on how online methodology works, which was already generating good results in the United States and Europe.
The industry took a giant leap forward during the pandemic. What online panel companies failed to achieve in a decade, confinement achieved in two years. Faced with the need to continue collecting data responsibly, research agencies and end-customers in Latin America began requesting online sampling services.
Researchers say that the adoption of the online methodology accelerated by at least four years. This evolution, in record time, ushered in new panels, diversified data collection methods, and consolidated large insights marketplace exchanges.
Now that stay-at-home orders have expired and people are starting to get back out, there has been some regression to traditional methodologies (face-to-face). While not surprising considering some of the challenges surrounding the online methodology like reaching participants with low socioeconomic levels, unconventional regions for the consumer industry, the need for very specific profiles, and data integrity, it's disheartening to see the industry take a step back.
Is the gap closed in Latin America? Perhaps it's too early to tell. We may see this expansion and contraction in the use of online sample for some time as agencies and end clients work through their process of adoption. It's unlikely that online sample will be phased out, but there may be a period of hybrid use of face-to-face intercepts and online panels to bridge the gap.
SampleCon 2022 was hosted at the elegant Langham Hotel in Pasadena, California. This year’s conference seemed like a return to normalcy. People from over 25 countries could attend without restrictions for the first time in two years. COVID was not mentioned, and everyone was in the mood to socialize and talk shop. As in previous years, a couple of recurring themes was the topic of many conversations and sessions, including data quality, the talent pipeline, and online sample consolidation. However, if SampleCon 2022 had to be summarized in one word, it would be acquisitions. But let’s start this conference re-cap with a familiar pain point – fraud.
Despite technological innovations to reduce fraud, data integrity remains a concern within the sample industry. This year has been the worst on record for data quality issues, or so it seems. A consensus emerged during the conference that the industry does not have the proper data collection metrics, which is true in some ways. It is also possible to argue that data quality issues result from a lack of uniform industry guidelines.
Online sample companies have their own fraud metrics that don’t always align with other providers. Fortunately, the industry is innovative, and companies like Research Defender license software solutions to mitigate the risk of fraud. However, if there aren’t centralized best practices on how to eliminate fraud from sample, the industry is still vulnerable to attacks, which can have an impact on providers, panelists, and ultimately clients.
As with many industries, the Great Resignation still impacts the online sample industry. The pool of qualified candidates is shrinking, and companies are competing for the same candidates. During the conference, many conversations were held around the water cooler and most agree that resolving the talent shortage long-term will require an intentional effort to get more college students interested in data science. But that doesn’t solve the immediate need, which is a good segue to another force moving on the online sample industry – consolidation.
Acquisitions have accelerated in recent years. Larger market research firms are acquiring smaller ones, resulting in layoffs in some instances. Sample companies needing talent may be able to offer job opportunities to these job seekers, and since they have insights experience, there’s a shorter learning curve.
The market research industry has recently experienced a lot of flux. Kantar acquired Qmee and Schlesinger, who acquired 20|20 Research in 2020, and most recently, Addison Research, announced another acquisition during the conference. Dynata acquired Branded Research, and the list goes on and on. The consolidation of these market research firms also impacts online panel companies. Will Dynata remove Branded Research from the Lucid (acquired by Cint) exchange? That remains to be seen, and is a question many will ask of similar scenarios. Online panels require a massive investment in technology and implementation. A panel can dry out if not maintained, so the infrastructure must be there.
Nonetheless, there is plenty of opportunity for new online sample providers because they can establish community databases, a skill that large companies are not as well-versed in. So it will be interesting to see how everything plays out. Stay tuned!